26 October 2013

Birth of the Bandeirante

Grayson Ottoway sent in this post to remember the aircraft that became the legendary Embraer Bandeirante that flew for the first time on the 26th of October 1968...
Designed by a French engineer called Max Holste using Brazil’s Ministry of Aeronautics specifications, the goal was to create a general purpose un-pressurised twin turbo-prop aircraft, suitable for both civilian and military roles with a low operational cost and high reliability.

The prototype, known as YC-95, had 8 seats and was powered by 550shp PT6A-20 engines, three were built.

EMBRAER (Empresa Brasilera de Aeronautica - Brazilian Aeronautical Company) was established in 1969 and began operating on January 2, 1970 with the YC-95 – renamed the EMB-100 - as its first project.

It was found soon after that market conditions had changed and an eight seat plane would no longer be big enough. Embraer’s design team decided to start over with a new development based on the EMB-100 and so the EMB-110 Bandeirante (Portuguese for Pioneer) was born. It was bigger, with 12 seats with a number of technical advances.

The Brazilian Air Force placed an order for 80 aircraft with the first delivered to them in February 1973. (They still have more than 90 in service today - new flight decks were started to be upgraded in 2010 – photo below. For those of you, who flew the Bandit, brace yourselves. It is an impressive front end!!)

The passenger model first flew on August 9 1972, entering commercial service on April 16 1973 with Brazilian airlines Transbrasil and VASP.

In 1976 a 0.85 metre fuselage plug created a stretched variant with a large rear cargo door, passenger/pilot entry airstair/door in front of the propellers a ventral fin and upgraded 750shp PT6A-34’s engines. Called the 110K1 it became the C-95 in military service with the civilian version called the EMB-110P1. The P1 kept the military version large rear cargo door giving it the ability for fast conversion from 18 seat airliner to a freighter. The EMB-110P2 was also created as a dedicated airliner without the rear cargo door replaced with another passenger airstair/door.

In 1977 EMBRAER designed the "EMB-111 Bandierulha" maritime patrol machine with it going into service in 1978. Based on the first-generation "short" Bandeirante airframe, it had a large nose radome for ocean search radar, enhanced navigation system, electronic support measures system to locate radio emitters, two stores pylons under each wing with typical stores including two 127 millimeter (5 inch) HVAR unguided rockets per pylon or a seven-round launcher for 70 millimeter rockets per pylon.

The EMB-111 also had a smoke marker / illumination flare dispenser, wingtip fuel tanks for greater patrol endurance, an inward-opening rear door for airdropping rescue kit and had a separate ladder hooked onto the bottom of the door for access instead of a built in stair. Some EMB-111’s had flat tailplanes, others had dihedral tailplanes.

In 1981 in the US the EMB-110P1/41 EMB-110P2/41 variants were certified with higher maximum takeoff weight -- 5,900 kilograms (13,010 pounds), an increase of 230 kilograms (510 pounds). The "/41" suffix stood for the "SFAR Part 41" regulation issued by the US Federal Aviation Administration allowing the increase in weight.

Beginning in 1983 the EMB-110P1A / P2A variant began deliveries. Changes included a dihedral of 10ยบ of the horizontal stabilizers, better sound insulation, upgraded interior and other technical differences. (Air National’s Bandit ZK-ECM was one of these – Eagle’s all had straight tails.)

Sadly an EMB-110P3 pressurised version, with a ‘T-tail’ was designed in the early 80’s but never went any further. (3-view below)

The Bandeirante’s production line was shut down at the end of 1991. The last aircraft to be ordered, S/N 498, was delivered to the Amazon Government in 1995. All told, 498 airplanes were manufactured, 253 of them for Brazil and 245 for operators abroad.

And a load of them are still flying!

EMB-100 prototype (David John Allen picture)

EMB-100 no 1 is preserved in a museum in Brazil. (Daniel R. Carneiro picture)

New glass cockpit for Brazilian military Bandits.

There have been 23 Bandeirantes that have flown on the New Zealand register...

Air National
ZK-ECM/2 (c/n 110383)

For more on Air National see http://3rdlevelnz.blogspot.co.nz/2011/03/au-revoir-air-national-1-early-turbo.html

ZK-ECM in Menzies Aviation colours at Auckland on 5 February 1995...

and in Air National colours at Wellington on 14 October 1999.
Air Rarotonga
ZK-FTS (c/n 110239)
ZK-TAI/2 (c/n 110387)
ZK-TAK/2 (c/n 110448)
ZK-TRL (c/n 110417)
Slightly different tails on two of Air Rarotonga's Bandeirantes, ZK-TAK at Rarotonga on 25 July 2003
...and ZK-FTS at Rarotonga on 23 July 2003.

ZK-KML (c/n 110248) previously ZK-REU
ZK-TZL (c/n 110378)
ZK-TZM (c/n 110328) previously ZK-REW
ZK-TZN (c/n 110298) became ZK-CEF

For more on CityJet see http://3rdlevelnz.blogspot.co.nz/2012/12/cityjet-nzs-low-cost-airline.html
See also http://3rdlevelnz.blogspot.co.nz/2012/10/north-south-aviations-quikmail-air.html and http://3rdlevelnz.blogspot.co.nz/2012/11/tranzglobal-unlisted-freight-airline.html
ZK-KML when with North South Aviation at Auckland on 17 July 1993...

...when with TranzGlobal at Hokitika on 9 March 1996...

and when with CityJet at Nelson on 25 June 1999.

Eagle Airways
ZK-CEF (c/n 110238) previously ZK-TZN
ZK-DCH (c/n 110364)
ZK-ERU (c/n 110267)
ZK-FHX (c/n 110225)
ZK-JCM (c/n 110305)
ZK-KIP (c/n 110286)
ZK-KML (c/n 110248) Used for spares
ZK-LBC (c/n 110345)
ZK-MAS (c/n 110214)
ZK-NDC (c/n 110379)
ZK-TRM (c/n 110436)
ZK-TZL (c/n 110378) Used for spares
ZK-VJG (c/n 110298) previously ZK-TZN

New Zealand's first Bandeirante, ZK-ERU at Auckland on 24 November 1982.

ERU in her second scheme at Palmerston North on 18 May 1984

Eagle Air's rather bland third scheme... ERU taken at Hamilton on 20 May 1988

ERU as the Link carrier with only small Eagle Air titles under the cockpit window. Photo taken at Auckland on 16 April 1999

Only ZK-CEF, ZK-TRM and ZK-VJG carried the koru... ZK-VJG is seen at Woodbourne on 22 September 2000

Ansett NZ and associates
ZK-REU (c/n 110248)
ZK-REU/2 (c/n 110298) became ZK-KML
ZK-REV (c/n 110274)
ZK-REW (c/n 110328) became ZK-TRM
ZK-REX/2 (c/n 110184)
ZK-REX/3 (c/n 110407)
ZK-REZ (c/n 110417) previously ZK-TRL
ZK-TRK (c/n 110422)
ZK-TRL (c/n 110417) became ZK-REZ
ZK-TRM  (c/n 110436)

New Zealand's only P2 model Embraer Bandeirante, Tranzair's ZK-REX/2 at Nelson on 24 October 1989

Branded as the Whisper Connection, Tranzair ZK-REU 14 November 1990

ZK-TRM with the new stars on the tail at Wellington on 14 January 1992

The Australian stars on the tail of ZK-REV at Nelson on 5 February 1996

Rebranded as Ansett Regional, ZK-REW at Woodbourne on 19 November 1996

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